Region on the west bank of the Nile about 27 kilometers to the north of Luxor, near Koptos and the Wadi Hammamat on the east bank. It is the location of one of the largest sites from the Prehistoric Period, the so-called Naqada I or Amratian Period, 'c.'4000-3500 BC, and the Naqada II or Gerzean Period, 'c.'3500-3100 BC. The area covers several settlement sites and cemeteries with thousands of graves. There are also the remains of a settlement and temple from the Dynastic Period. One of the most remarkable tomb constructions is a mudbrick mastaba measuring 27 by 54 meters from the 1st Dynasty, including walls in the shape of a palace façade. The mastaba contains a large number of rooms in which many objects were found, such as flint tools, pottery cosmetic jars with ivory labels with the name of King Aha, animal statuettes, some furniture parts and lots of pottery.