Graeco-Roman Period

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The Graeco-Roman Period (332 BC -395 AD) marks the end of Persian rule over Egypt. The Persians (who came from what is now Iran) were defeated by the Greek conqueror, Alexander the Great, who occupied Egypt and founded a new capital city at Alexandria. When Alexander's empire was divided after his death in 323 BC, his general Ptolemy acquired Egypt and established the Ptolemaic dynasty. Greek was the official language of Egypt under the Ptolemies. Greek influence in art, administration and military organisation continued for the next 300 years. The traditional gods were still worshipped but new gods were also introduced. The Romans gradually began to intervene in Egyptian affairs and in 30 BC they conquered Egypt. It became a province of the Roman empire. Roman influence affected every part of Egyptian life, from household utensils to religion. Roman emperors continued to be depicted as traditional pharaohs on temple reliefs.